In the field of first aid training, these are:
1) Federal Law of the Russian Federation dated November 21, 2011 No. 323-ФЗ “On the Basics of Protecting the Health of Citizens in the Russian Federation”.
Section 31. First Aid
1. First aid before medical care is provided to citizens in case of accidents, injuries, poisoning and other conditions and diseases that threaten their life and health, by persons obliged to provide first aid in accordance with federal law or with a special rule and having appropriate training, in including employees of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation, employees, military personnel and employees of the State Fire Fighting Service, rescuers of rescue units and avar Rescue services.
2. The list of conditions in which first aid is provided and the list of first aid measures are approved by the authorized federal executive body.
3. Approximate programs of the training course, subject and discipline for the provision of first aid are developed by the authorized federal executive body and approved in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.
4. Drivers of vehicles and other persons are entitled to provide first aid in the presence of appropriate training and (or) skills.
2) Order of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia dated 04.05.2012 No. 477n “On the approval of the list of conditions in which first aid is provided and the list of first aid measures” including:
- Appendix No. 1. List of conditions in which first aid is provided
- Appendix No. 2. List of first aid measures
The modern world opens up many opportunities and conditions for personal development. Each day is accompanied by scientific discoveries and technological progress, which significantly increase the quality of our lives. However, all kinds of processes aimed at creating comfortable living conditions, unfortunately, cannot exclude everyday unforeseen situations in which you need to be able to act correctly and efficiently regardless of location, available equipment, social status and academic degree.
“There are many areas of knowledge that learn to“ predict the sudden ”- You say and you will be right.
However, while scientists are making attempts to anticipate any event, we have one opportunity - to adapt to its consequences, in connection with which we offer today talk about first aid, where a correct and quick response can reduce and even eliminate the sad consequences.
Anyone interested in this issue Participants of the project ProchkaPro prepared a small memo, “First Aid: Truth and Myths,” which tells about common mistakes and myths in providing first aid, and also describes the correct algorithms for its provision.
Loss of consciousness, fainting, or epilepsy
Loss of consciousness, fainting. Errors:
- shake a person
- beat him on the cheeks
- pouring water on him
- try to drink water if the person is unconscious.
- check for consciousness, breathing,
- if there is no consciousness, but breathing is preserved, then put in a recovery position, call an ambulance (deliver the victim to a medical institution),
- if there is no breathing and consciousness, then carry out cardiopulmonary resuscitation and call an ambulance (deliver the victim to a medical institution),
- if the victim himself regained consciousness, then ask how he feels,
- if the affected person is pale, then lay and raise his legs,
- if the conscious victim is red, make the head level above the level of the legs,
- cover, give a drink of water,
- call an ambulance (deliver the victim to a medical institution).
More details in the article:
- attempt to unclench a person’s teeth in order to place any object (spoon, ruler) between the teeth,
- try to forcibly hold the victim, transfer him,
- try to give a person water during convulsions or give various medications,
- strike in the face, scream, try to bring the victim to feelings,
- start doing cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
- if a person falls with you, then you should try to mitigate the fall of a person,
- It is recommended to examine the place of the victim's fall. If you see objects with which a person may be injured unintentionally during an attack, then you should try to shift or move them, not forgetting about your own safety,
- if you decide to come up and help a person, then try to fix the head or put something soft under it,
- if the attack is accompanied by profuse salivation, then try to turn your head to the side. If convulsions do not allow this, then only the previous paragraph should be followed.
- if the teeth are not closed during the attack, you can put a scarf or other tissue between them to avoid damage to the teeth,
- if there is a watch, you can time the seizure. This information may be needed by a person in the future,
- when the victim regains consciousness, ask if he knows what happened. If the answer is yes and the person refuses help, then heed his opinion. If the answer is no, then call an ambulance (deliver the victim to a medical institution),
- if the attack lasts longer than 5 minutes, then call an ambulance (deliver the victim to a medical institution),
- if there is no breathing and pulse after the attack, then call an ambulance (deliver the victim to a medical institution),
- if after a fall and convulsions you have found injuries, bleeding in the victim, then call an ambulance (deliver the victim to a medical institution),
- if the attack recurs, then call an ambulance (deliver the victim to a medical institution).
Bleeding (hemorrhage) is the process of blood flowing from damaged blood vessels, is a direct complication of traumatic injuries (combat injuries) and the main cause of death of those injured in an emergency (ES), injured on the battlefield and during the stages of medical evacuation. Bleeding can occur immediately after vascular damage (primary bleeding) or some time after the bleeding stops (secondary bleeding).
A small article about bleeding in the encyclopedia here.
- Arterial bleeding.
- Venous bleeding.
- Capillary bleeding.
- Parenchymal bleeding.
Depending on the place of the outpouring of blood, bleeding is divided into external and internal. A separate article was written on this issue, presented below.
- throw your head back
- insert a cotton swab into your nose.
- sitting a little bent forward
- apply cold to the nose
- give the victim a napkin (but do not plug her nose),
- if heavy bleeding does not stop for more than 15 minutes, call an ambulance.
Ingestion in the upper respiratory tract
(the man choked on what to do ...)
- knock on the back when a person is sitting or standing,
- give drink or eat.
- If a person coughs (breathing “slow breath - quick exhale”) - tilt the person or throw him over the knee, knock on the back 5-6 times.
- If a man grabbed his neck with his hands, tears flowed from his eyes, began to turn blue, blush, turn pale - we use Heimlich’s capture:
- Go to the choking back so that the level of his shoulders was higher than yours.
- Place one of your legs between the victim’s legs, bend both legs slightly at the knees.
- Grab the rescuer with your arms around the waist.
- Squeeze one hand into a fist.
- Put your fist a little higher than the navel of a person.
- Grasp your fist from above with your free hand.
- With a sharp movement, forcefully press on the stomach and up, as if trying to raise the victim.
- If necessary, carry out a series of five jerks described at minimum intervals.
More details in the article:
(briefly about the main thing)
- smear the place of the burn with butter,
Errors during thermal burns:
- smear the burn with any oil or soap, egg yolk, sprinkle with baking soda and use other various improvised means,
- try to pierce and blow out the bubble that formed after the burn,
- separate the leftover clothes from the burn yourself,
- in case of a burn of the oral cavity, give the victim food and water.
Mistakes for chemical burns:
- rinse the burn area with running water is prohibited in cases where it was obtained by exposure to organic aluminum compounds,
- apply dressings immediately after the burn, bandage the wounds with a bandage,
- try to neutralize the alkali with acid or vice versa. The reaction of alkali with acid is accompanied by the release of a large amount of heat, which will lead to complication of the injury,
- use natural fats as a medicine. This can lead to complications, since fats are an excellent medium for the propagation of staphylococci and Pseudomonas bacilli,
- treat the burn with iodine, peroxide or potassium permanganate. These substances can further damage the edges of the wound, as well as increase pain.
with 1 and 2 degrees of burn:
- place the affected area under cool water for 15-20 minutes,
- then cover the wound with a clean, damp cloth
- see a doctor as soon as possible.
with 3 and 4 degrees of burn:
- cover with a clean, damp cloth. This must be done before placing the affected area under water, since with 3-4 burns, the damage to the tissues is deep, therefore, a stream of water can begin to erode the wound,
- further moisten the cloth with cool water or keep under a gentle stream for at least 15 minutes,
- see a doctor as soon as possible.
More details in the article:
High and low body temperature
- wrap oneself in a blanket
- warm your feet
- wipe with vinegar
- drink antipyretic at a temperature below 38 ° C,
- put mustard plasters.
- drinking plenty of fluids (without sugar), best of all is mineral water,
- keep your feet in cool water
- cool compresses
- bed rest.
Low temperature. Errors:
- make a person move more.
- give the victim a hot drink and food (preferably with a high content of carbohydrates),
We hope that the reader will not have to face the events described above, and if this does happen, he can confidently and quickly help someone who really needs it. This article provides only a small part of examples of first aid; more useful information can be found on the pages of the UchkaPro educational project on social networks.
First Aid Procedure