Everyone periodically has a headache. The most common type of cephalgia is tension headache (GBN). What it is? This is a diffuse bilateral headache of moderate or medium intensity with a compressive (compressive) character.
The disease is inherent in a third of the world's population. In most people, the condition develops at a young age. It happens that the disease occurs after 50 years, but this is rather the exception. It is characteristic that GBN is more common in women.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) has assigned this pathology code G44.2.
Stress headache belongs to the category of neurological diseases. Specialists divide it into several types.
The chronic nature of cephalgia is manifested by severe soreness in the forehead and occiput. Causes muscle spasm in the neck or head.
Chronic GBN is characterized by severe symptoms, in contrast to episodic, therefore it is more difficult to treat with analgesics. The duration can reach a month.
What is tension headache?
A headache of tension (GBN) is a pain of a compressive nature, of moderate or mild intensity and lasting from half an hour to several days. In women, it occurs more often in a ratio of about 5: 4. Every year, only headache preparations are bought in the world for amounts approaching millions of dollars, which naturally causes social and economic damage not only to specific people, but to entire countries.
According to the international classification of headaches (ICGB-3 beta, 2013), this species refers to benign cephalalgia (headache) that is not associated with damage to the brain of an organic nature (tumors and other diseases).
Occasional GBN is temporary, resulting from overwork, stress, excessive physical exertion. It is characterized by a short-term sense of compression in the forehead and neck. Some complain that the whole head hurts.
The attack lasts from several minutes to several hours. Sometimes the malaise lasts several days. This is typical if a person has not taken painkillers.
How to relieve an episode of episodic tension headache? It is enough to take an analgesic. Even if the pain does not completely disappear, it will decrease to such an extent that it will not affect the usual way of life.
Why does it arise?
For a long time, the occurrence of tension headache was associated with psychogenic disorders. Recent studies have disproved this theory and proved the neurobiological nature of pain. In origin, 2 mechanisms were distinguished:
- peripheral, associated with dysfunction of pericranial (located near the skull - occipital, frontal, temporal, sternocleidomastoid) muscles. The pain is associated with a spasm of the above muscles,
- central, due to increased sensitivity of neurons, a decrease in pain thresholds and a decrease in the activity of the analgesic system located in the brain.
Prolonged muscle spasm impairs blood circulation in muscle tissue, leads to muscle hypoxia (lack of oxygen), the release of inflammatory mediators (histamine, bradykinin, etc.) that bind to receptors on the membrane of muscle nociceptors (receptors responsible for conducting pain impulses), increase sensitivity last to pain. Sections of painful muscle seals appear, from which pain signals to the brain depart.
The most common factors are:
- emotional stress (chronic or acute),
- prolonged forced uncomfortable position of the head and neck (working at a computer, prolonged driving, picking up small parts of electronics, performing jewelry, etc.),
- lack of sleep at night,
- anxiety disorders
- drug abusus (the use of a large number of painkillers).
Types of Stress Headache
- episodic headache (not more than 15 times a month). She, in turn, is divided into frequent and infrequent,
- chronic form. It appears more than 15 times a month or 6 months a year.
Headaches with "tension" and "without tension of pericranial muscles" are also distinguished.
How does a tension headache manifest itself?
Episodes of a headache are bilateral, diffuse, spread to the forehead, temples, nape, crown, not pulsating, but compressive, like a “helmet” or “hoop”, lasting from 20 - 30 minutes to a couple of days, daily attacks are possible . It does not become stronger after normal physical exertion (climbing stairs, walking). It is rarely accompanied by other manifestations, but symptoms such as:
- mild nausea
- very rarely single vomiting,
- photophobia (intolerance, fear of light),
- phonophobia (fear of loud sounds).
With a drug-induced form, the headache is almost daily, often in the morning, often awakens patients and forces them to take an analgesic pill. Fatigue, decreased performance, irritability, sleep disturbance, inability to concentrate are characteristic, there is a fear of a headache, which closes the “vicious circle” and forces you to take the drug again.
Stress headache in children
Our young generation has a headache by no means. It occurs when the school desk is improperly selected for schoolchildren, which does not correspond to their height and, accordingly, the child will be constantly in an uncomfortable position for him, which will provoke excessive tension of his muscles ("school" pains). Other factors may include physical or mental stress, lack of rest and sleep, or being in a room that is too hot. Children's headaches are squeezing in nature, bilateral, the child becomes irritable, quickly tired, possibly a rapid heartbeat, lowering blood pressure, fainting rarely occurs.
Possible doctors for consultation:
In the diagnosis of tension headache, an objective examination, including palpation of pericranial muscles, is very important. It is carried out by rotational movements of the II and III fingers examining, thus, chewing, temporal, sternocleidomastoid, trapezoid, as well as belt and lower oblique muscles of the back of the neck. The diagnosis of “tension of the pericranial muscles” is positive for pain during palpation in two or more muscle groups.
To determine the form of HDN, it is necessary to calculate the number of days with cephalgia. To do this, it is recommended to keep a diary of a "headache", in which all days with pain and the number of painkillers taken are noted. Particular attention should be paid to the psychological status of the patient, possibly having a depressive disorder, anxiety, panic attacks. Personal and emotional upheavals support pain and are a common cause of chronic headache tension.
To exclude organic pathology (circulatory disorders in the brain, tumors, inflammatory changes, etc.) use:
- rheoencephalography (a study of the filling of blood vessels in the brain),
- electroencephalography (registration of electrical signals that come from brain cells),
- ultrasound examination of the brain (allows you to visualize volumetric formations in the brain, determine intracranial pressure),
- computed tomography
- magnetic resonance imaging.
The last 2 types of research make it possible to determine the presence of even small brain tumors, developmental abnormalities, post-traumatic, inflammatory changes, etc.
Differential diagnosis is carried out with mild migraine, which is characterized by a hereditary history, typical provocative factors and aura (precursors of migraine - flashes of light in front of the eyes, numbness or tingling of the fingertips, blind spots, etc.).
For the treatment of tension headache, the best drugs are:
- Paracetamol. The safest analgesic with minimal side effects and good patient tolerance. This is a drug that should be used at the first appearance of HDN. Only if it is ineffective is it possible to switch to other medicines. In adults, an effective single dose starts at 1000 mg. An important plus is the low cost (about 20 rubles) of the drug and the general availability. Contraindicated in people with hepatic impairment.
- Citramon - a combined preparation, which includes 3 active ingredients - aspirin, paracetamol, caffeine. It is indicated for people whose headache is combined with increased drowsiness. It has a good effect, a nice price (about 25 rubles). Not recommended for use in the evening, for people with arterial hypertension and peptic ulcer of the stomach or duodenum.
- Ibuprofen (Ibupron, Ibufen, Mig, Nurofen, etc.) is a fast-acting drug from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The price starts from 15 rubles. and higher depending on the manufacturer. The effect after oral administration after 20 to 30 minutes. Contraindicated in people with peptic ulcer.
- Naproxen (Nalgesin and others). The drug of choice for headaches in several US states and European countries. A highly effective drug that also copes with toothache, headache with otitis media, sinusitis, etc. The price is about 80 r. Contraindicated in people with peptic ulcer. After taking allergic reactions are possible, rarely bronchospasm.
- Ketanov (Ketorolac). A drug with a very pronounced analgesic effect, helps even with severe headaches. The cost is about 50 - 100 rubles. Long-term use is not advisable due to cardiac, gastro- and nephrotoxicity (negatively affects the heart, stomach, kidneys). Contraindicated in people with diseases of the stomach, heart and kidneys.
Taking analgin-containing drugs (Analgin, Tempalgin, Sedalgin, etc.) is contraindicated, especially for a long time, in connection with the latest evidence of its negative effect on the white blood sprout. After taking, agranulocytosis often develops - a decrease in the number of leukocytes, i.e. leads to a decrease in the protective immune forces of the body. Also, combined preparations are not recommended for use, including such substances as codeine, phenobarbital (Pentalgin, Fasconal, etc.), due to the development of drug dependence on these substances (drug abusus).
Treatment of chronic forms of tension headache
The treatment of the chronic form of tension headache consists in taking the following drugs:
- Amitriptyline. It has a high evidence base, it is used not only for treatment, but also for the prevention of headaches. It belongs to the group of antidepressants, but has a pronounced analgesic effect. Possible side effects: drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth. Contraindicated in severe heart rhythm disturbances, severe heart failure, angle-closure glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure),
- with inefficiency (taking more than 4 weeks) of amitriptyline, Mirtazapine, Venlafaxine, Mianserin, etc. can be used.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the drug is made 1 month after the start of its intake.
In drug-induced forms, the guilty of this drug should be abandoned with a temporary replacement for long-acting drugs (Naproxen, Flupirtine). For detoxification (needed to remove the drug from the body and normalize the structures and functions violated by it), the following drugs can be used - Dexamethasone, Prednisolone, Amitriptyline, saline.
Headache pills for children and pregnant women
Before taking any drugs, pregnant women should definitely seek the advice of a gynecologist or therapist to exclude a headache of a different genesis (pathological blood pressure, etc.). To remove the attack, only Paracetamol is allowed to be used in all trimesters of pregnancy, in the second Ibuprofen, No-shpa (Drotaverin) are allowed. In the third trimester, Ibuprofen is again contraindicated.
For infants and toddlers, it is better to use suppositories with paracetamol (Cefecon, etc.), syrups with ibuprofen or paracetamol (Panadol, Nurofen, etc.). Nimesulide (Nise, Nimesil) has a good effect, which has been used since 12 years. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) can be used only from 15 years old.
How to get rid of pain without pills?
First of all, it is worth remembering that the headache of tension is benign and can go away on its own. After 1 - 2 attacks of pain, you should not run and do an MRI of the brain. First of all, you need to distract your attention from the headache, learn relaxation skills (meditation or other mechanisms are suitable), remember muscle tension - you need to do gymnastic exercises aimed at relaxing the muscles of the neck and pericranial region, exclude prolonged stay in one position. Recently, the biological feedback method has been used with great efficiency. It is possible to conduct acupuncture sessions (acupuncture), blockade of pain points with anesthetics (bupivacaine, lidocaine).
Of the folk methods, honey, cabbage leaves, beet juice, a decoction of mint and lemon balm, hypericum, hawthorn, lavender oil are used.
In most cases, the prognosis for a headache is favorable. With proper treatment, relapses are less than 10%, some people have only single seizures that go away on their own. Remember, in case of a headache, stress should not be immediately grabbed onto the pills, in most cases you just need to abstract from the surrounding problems and find a quiet, calm place for yourself - the pain will recede on its own.
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How to get rid of a headache without pills?
Antispasmodics and analgesics, despite all their effectiveness in combating headaches, can still cause negative reactions of the body. Therefore, before grabbing at the pills, you should try to get rid of the headache with the following methods:
- Cold compress on the back of the head
- Breathing exercises (breathe in the stomach, taking short breaths and long exhalations),
- Massage of certain points responsible for stress relief using essential oil (whiskey, eyebrows)
- Massage and rubbing of the cervical muscles from the bottom up (especially good for myositis and osteochondrosis).
- The following relaxation exercises can help you find a clear head:
- Take a comfortable position in the chair, lay your head on the back of the chair and try to relax all facial muscles as much as possible,
- Lie on the floor and sequentially relax all the muscles of the body, starting with the calf and ending with the facial,
- Put your hands on the back of the head and lightly press on the neck, struggling with resistance. Then weave your fingers and stretch your arms forward, stretching as you should.
If you experience headaches, it is recommended that you exercise for 10-15 minutes.
Treatment of headaches and stress folk remedies
Herbal teas will help you cope with a headache. The most famous of them # 8212, mint with honey - allows you to combine business with pleasure: it relaxes, soothes a headache and has a wonderful taste. Do not forget about green tea: this natural antioxidant has a beneficial effect on blood vessels.
An excellent natural antispasmodic is thyme. You should brew 5 grams of the plant in 0.5 l of boiling water for an hour. Take several times a day for a week with 14-day intervals. A single dose of infusion must be carefully calculated.
You can also take valerian root infusion (a tablespoon of 200 ml of water, insist for 10 hours). The effectiveness of the infusion will increase if you add a few drops of juice of a golden mustache.
In general, a golden mustache or fragrant callisia is a real ally in the fight against headache. Its leaves contain flavonoids, which normalize the metabolism and have a beneficial effect on the endocrine system. It is enough to hold the callisia leaf for some time in the refrigerator, knead, apply to the temples for 5 minutes, and then replace it with lemon peel so that the pain subsides almost immediately.
The gruel of the golden mustache in combination with grated beets, applied to the temples, will also help to relieve the headache. But you can try a more complex recipe that will save you with severe migraines. To do this, you need to: chop half a kilogram of oranges with peel, add a fragrant callisia leaf, 300 g. sugar, 150 gr. grated horseradish and 1 liter of wine (preferably red). Boil all the ingredients in an hour in a water bath. Пить по 3 столовых ложки через 2 часа после еды.
От болей, вызванных мигренью, поможет справиться сок калины (по 50 мл 2-3 раза в день) и картофельный сок (в той же дозировке). При мигрени также полезны сыр и сухофрукты.
Leaves of such a beautiful plant as lilacs will help to overcome a headache. It is enough to attach a fresh leaf of lilac to the focus of pain, and it will subside. It is noteworthy that the dry leaves of lilacs retain all the healing properties - it is enough to steam them.
For the prevention of headaches, you must regularly take vitamins. Vitamin B1, which is found in legumes, rye bread, liver and brewer's yeast, is considered to be the most useful for brain function.
The modern rhythm of life, constant stress, urban noise and adverse ecology have led to the fact that 70% of the population of developed countries know firsthand what cephalgia is, or simply a headache. Most people do not go to the doctor in this case, but prefer to swallow over-the-counter analgesics. But a headache can be a manifestation of a number of diseases: hypertension, hypotension, pathology of the kidneys and ENT organs, problems with the spine, etc. Therefore, the question of how to get rid of a headache arises rather sharply.
But the most common is the so-called "tension headache." It accounts for up to 80% of all cases of cephalgia. The main cause of this headache is acute or chronic stress. It can be distinguished by the following signs: monotonous pressing dull pain, bursting or, conversely, squeezing. It begins, as a rule, with the neck and spreads to the temples, the eye area, and the back of the head. A headache of tension can be accompanied by nausea, dizziness, swaying and worsen with changing weather, strong winds, working in a poorly ventilated area, insomnia, prolonged mental and physical overwork, fasting and drinking alcohol.
In order for the headache to visit you as little as possible, you need to adjust the daily routine, diet, find time for walking in the fresh air and get rid of bad habits.
So how to get rid of a headache if a headache still visited you? Is there any alternative to the pill? There are a lot of ways to get rid of a headache. Here are the most effective and simple.
10 methods to get rid of a headache
1. Drink 2 cups cold still water. To get rid of frequent headaches, you need to drink enough water, at least 7 glasses a day.
2. Lubricate the forehead and temples with gruel from grated lemon peel.
3. Make a massage of the neck and head. With light stroking movements, go from the frontal region to the back of the head, from the crown down to the ears, and then to the back of the head, gradually descending to the neck.
4. Drink a cup of green tea with mint. Drinking plenty of fluids is very important. After all, a headache is often the result of dehydration. So sometimes you can get rid of cephalgia simply by drinking a glass of water in small sips.
5. A fairly effective method is acupressure. To do this, pinch the area between the index and thumb. Repeat the action several times.
6. Ventilate and moisten the room, turn off the light, draw the curtains and in complete silence close your eyes and relax for at least 10-15 minutes.
7. When answering the question of how to get rid of a headache, it should be noted that a hot shower or a warm relaxing bath with essential oils of lemon, lavender, thyme or mint helps very well. Alternatively, you can steam for 15 minutes.
8. Attach a bag of ice cubes wrapped in a napkin to the forehead, nape or temples, and then grease the whiskey with rosemary or lemon essential oil. The once popular Vietnamese Zvezdochka balm is also suitable.
9. Do some breathing exercises: take a deep breath through your nose, exhale sharply through your mouth, and as far as you can, hold your breath. Repeat 2-3 times. In this case, you need to breathe with your stomach, relaxing your neck and shoulders.
10. The "grandmother" method also helps - a tight bandage. Tie your head in a towel or scarf and lie down on a flat surface for several minutes. The legs and head should be on the same level. This method is especially recommended if you feel general weakness, and cold perspiration appears on your forehead.
Warning. In no case should you eat chocolate, coffee, alcohol, nuts, hard cheese, legumes, spices and smoked meats. These foods can trigger the so-called "gourmet migraine." Be healthy and take care!
What is tension headache (GBN)
Headache of tension (GBN) is a fairly common syndrome, unpleasant sensations from which at least once in our life each of us experienced. The one who did not encounter this even once was very lucky, unlike most people who complain about the depressed state and strong pressure in the temples, the top of the head and the back of the head very often. There are those who experience this pain constantly. Of course, pills can always come to the rescue, but this is only if the diagnosis is obvious and the doctor prescribed the medication, and not a colleague working with similar symptoms.
Headache against a background of nervous tension is pronounced and does not allow a person to relax. The malaise occurs due to conflict or nervous overload. If you distract from situations that traumatize the soul, the pain will ease or pass away.
How to get rid of HDN arising from nervous tension? Shown are rest in the circle of close people, going out into the countryside, watching your favorite movie.
Headache of muscle tension is characteristic of people of working age. It is also called psychogenic and idiopathic. It arises as a result of prolonged contraction of the muscles of the skull, neck, face, which causes a decrease in blood volume in the vessels and as a result - oxygen starvation of tissues and the accumulation of toxins.
Symptoms of muscle cephalgia: severe tension of the shoulder, cervical, and facial muscles, dull, non-pulsating pain from the forehead to the back of the head, a feeling of intense tension in the temples and forehead.
What are the symptoms when stress type pain is diagnosed? It appears:
The pain of tension in the head is non-pulsating in nature, it does not cause nausea and vomiting. Many patients complain of intolerance to noise and light, tremors, lack of appetite, distracted attention, insomnia, lack of sleep.
Patients characterize such pain as monotonous, constricting, constricting, constricting, moderate, dull, strong or light.
Many patients with a diagnosis of GBN are unpleasant to wear a hat and comb their hair. During exercise, the malaise does not increase, but without drugs, attacks do not go away even at night.
Symptoms of tension headache
Each GBN manifests itself in different ways, but most converge in sensations: they experience strong pressure, a feeling of tightness, the presence of a tight hoop or hat.
Basically, the pain is bilateral, although in some it spreads only on one side, affecting the neck. As a rule, nausea and vomiting with such pain is a rarity, but the body in each of us can react differently to such failures, so the appearance of such symptoms is not excluded.
In addition, doctors argue that with such pain intolerance to bright light and loud sounds is observed.
Pain from overstrain occurs mainly at a young age (30-40 years). At risk are mental workers. The higher the socio-educational level of a person, the higher the likelihood of him earning pain from muscle tension in the neck.
Affected people who often experience:
- emotional stress
- fixation of attention
Causes of stress headache
It is generally accepted that such a headache is caused by severe muscle tension caused by frequent bouts of anxiety, stress. excessive physical and mental stress, which we rarely pay attention to.
A long forced position in an uncomfortable position, depression can lead to a headache. long-term use of analgesics and tranquilizers.
Chronic stress leads to the development of muscle spasm and severe muscle tension. In this case, vessels located in the thickness of muscle tissue are compressed.
Muscle nutrition is deteriorating, metabolism is disturbed at the biochemical level. This leads to pain.
Pain is a signal to the body that something is wrong and needs to be changed, otherwise even more serious consequences are possible.
Although GBN in itself does not pose a threat to life, neurological diseases are possible from stress, especially prolonged, chronic.
How to get rid of tension headache
First, love yourself and let the body rest. Many of us live in a crazy rhythm, which is why they simply do not have enough night sleep to restore our strength and replenish our energy reserves. That is why it is so important that you give yourself the opportunity to relax during the day.
Secondly, make it a rule to do a head massage several times a day. There is nothing complicated: a light stroking will bring immediate relief.
Thirdly, daily intake of a warm bath should become a mandatory ritual in your life. It is advisable to take a pleasant procedure before bedtime.
Fourth, outdoor walks, regardless of your mood and condition, should be included in the main set of rules in the fight against GBN.
Fifth, an active lifestyle will help a lot in relieving the condition.
Sixth, make it a rule several times a day to do elementary breathing exercises, which are also good for health, and help withstand any stress.
Seventh, take the time and be sure to get a neurologist consultation. Perhaps the cause of headaches is not at all in the tension, but in something more serious.
Eighth, relaxation therapy, yoga, and acupuncture have proven themselves well in the treatment of such pain.
Ninth, as often as possible massage the whiskey with peppermint essential oil, which relaxes not only the muscles of the head, but the whole body.
Tenth, take foot baths daily with a few drops of tea tree oil or rosemary.
Eleventh, try to overcome the pain with a compress. Wet a terry towel in the decoction of the needles and attach it to the forehead.
Prepared by Olga Soroka
Source: Zdravushka, No. 18, g
The wrong proportion of pain and pain systems in the body
An imbalance of pain and pain systems occurs under the influence of the autonomic nervous system. Stimulation of proportionality emotional stress, anxiety and depression.
As a result, the level of serotonin is reduced - a powerful analgesic substance - and the threshold for excitation of pain receptors. Even from a minor effect (combing or touching the surface of the head) there is discomfort.
Ailments of the cervical spine
With cervical osteochondrosis, connective tissues, tendons, muscles and nerve endings of the cervical spine suffer. There is their limitation of mobility, stretching and squeezing, which causes a headache (cervicogenic).
The source of pain is not the head, but the neck, but since the nerve endings are common, it can be felt in the head, forehead, jaw, temples, above the eyebrows, give from the eyes to the ears.
Alcohol and coffee
Provoking factors for the occurrence of GBN are alcohol and coffee.
Coffee contains caffeine, which dilates blood vessels and causes high blood pressure. In this regard, a fragrant drink is contraindicated in hypertensive patients.
The main reason for cephalgia after drinking alcohol is oxygen starvation of the brain, which has a destructive effect on cortical cells.
Due to the action of alcohol, blood is saturated with red blood cell clots that impair oxygen transport. As a result, brain cells do not receive enough of it.
A few hours after drinking, the process of rejection begins. The body seeks to remove dead cells, which causes pain in the head.
Combination with migraine
In some people, stress syndrome is combined with migraine attacks. Over time, this leads to the development of cephalgia due to stress.
Two forms of pathology (GBN and migraine) have different symptoms, so it is not difficult to distinguish them. However, if the disease becomes chronic, the seizures become atypical.
In this situation, the patient is recommended to keep a diary for a long time, and note all the clinical signs that provoke seizures and relieve pain. This will simplify further diagnosis.
The diagnosis of the child
Today, in children and in adolescence, as often as in adults, there is a diagnosis of GBN. Symptoms in a child are as follows:
- squeezing pain on both sides,
- the child gets tired quickly, becomes irritable,
- unpleasant sensations are complemented by pain in the back, joints, heart,
- blood pressure rises or falls,
- vision deteriorates
The cause of prolonged muscle tension becomes an inappropriate desk or table when the child sits in an uncomfortable position for a long time.
Also, HDN of a newborn and an older child contributes to an insufficient amount of fresh air, physical and mental fatigue, prolonged starvation, and weather changes.
Pain can be caused by hemolytic anemia, anemic and asthenic conditions.
The complexity of the diagnosis of GBN is due to the fact that it does not have any morphological substrate. That is, even with systematic and severe ailments, not a single instrumental study will reveal abnormalities. Therefore, the diagnosis of HDN is based on:
- questioning the patient and carefully collecting an anamnesis, including information about bad habits, daily routine, work features,
- general examination by a neurologist and therapist,
- palpations of the muscles of the neck and neck (pericranial muscles) in order to identify painful points.
Differential diagnosis of GBN from ailments of another kind (symptomatic) is necessary, it consists in conducting ultrasound, MRI, CT, urine and blood tests and other types of diagnostics at the discretion of the doctor.
How to remove a malaise that does not go away on its own? The most important thing here is to be able to relax. There are several ways to do this:
- do yoga and auto training,
- like psychotherapy sessions
- take a relaxing bath with healing herbs,
- stand in the shower under hot water
- massage your neck
- take a course of physiotherapy,
- do therapeutic exercises regularly.
Treatment of chronic GBN
Many are interested in what to take for the treatment of hGBF? It is noteworthy that conservative medicine does not recommend taking painkillers. They are ineffective and complicate an already difficult task when stopping an attack.
The most common medications than treating pain caused by tension are antidepressants.
Prescribe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors:
- Prozac (Fluoxetine),
- Zoloft, Serlift (Sertraline),
- Paxen (Paroxetine).
They are very effective in diagnosing a chronic tension headache. They have a minimum of side effects, unlike other pharmacological groups.
A typical representative of tricyclic antidepressants, which is prescribed to patients, is amitriptyline. It is drunk in long courses (2-6 months).
Reception begins with 0.25-0.5 tablets, increasing the dose every 3 days, so that at the end a total of 75 mg is obtained. At this dose, the drug is drunk for several months, then it is gradually reduced until it is completely canceled.
Mianserin (Lerivon) and Tianeptin (Coaxil)
Antidepressants have proven themselves well:
- Lerivon (Mianserin) - 15 mg twice a day,
- Coaxil (Tianeptin) - 12.5 mg three times a day.
Treatment lasts at least 2 months. Drugs can achieve not only an analgesic effect, but also normalize psycho-vegetative activity, that is, reduce the degree of anxiety and fear, normalize the emotional state and mood.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
If episodic GBN does not occur often, NSAIDs help:
- Nurofen, Brufen, Imet (Ibuprofen) - 400 mg once,
- Flamax, Ketonal (Ketoprofen) - 25-50 mg,
- Xefocam (Lornoxicam) - 4-8 mg,
- Movalis, Melbek (Meloxicam) - 7.5-15 mg,
- Nalgesin (Naproxen) - 250-500 mg.
All drugs are not recommended to be used more often 5-10 times a month, as they can cause abusal headache resulting from the abuse of painkillers.
With frequent episodic GBN, doctors can prescribe a course of NSAIDs in order to break off repetitive attacks (Ibuprofen 400 mg up to 3 times a day for 3 weeks).
If the course method does not lead to the disappearance of ailments, a second course is not prescribed, since this is useless.
If GBN is caused by muscle tension, muscle relaxants are indicated, for example:
- Midocalm (tolperisone) - 150 mg once,
- Tizalud, Sirdalud (Tizanidine) - 2-4 mg once with 500 mg of Aspirin.
With frequent pain with muscle spasms, muscle relaxants prescribe courses for 2-4 weeks.
Light sedatives help relieve anxiety and regulate the processes of autonomic dysfunction. These are extracts of Motherwort, Valerian, Novopassit. They are made on the basis of medicinal herbs. Регулярный прием способствует формированию адекватной реакции на стресс, нормализует сон, устраняет перепады настроения.
The dosage of sedatives is selected individually, the course of treatment is 14-21 days.
Important: you should not take even light sedatives during pregnancy and lactation without the recommendation of a doctor. Many components of drugs pass into breast milk or through the placental barrier, which is unsafe for the baby or fetus.
Nootropic drugs are effective in the treatment of HDN together with other drugs. Assign:
|Title||How to use|
|Noofen||1-2 tablets 3 times a day for 1-1.5 months|
|Phenibut||1-2 tablets twice a day for 4 weeks|
|Glycine||2-3 tablets per day for a month|
Drug treatment of tension headache is not enough, as the basis of malaise is a state of external or internal stress, psychosomatics. Psychotherapy comes to the rescue, which allows you to rework a person’s perception of stressful and conflict situations.
Psychotherapy is carried out in the form of conversations and somatic events. The key to recovery lies in becoming less susceptible. The more the patient frees himself from the need for approval from others, the better he will be able to understand and respect himself.
Of the physiotherapeutic procedures, electrosleep and electrophoresis are recommended:
- electrosleep is an electrotherapy method based on the use of pulsed currents with a low frequency. They directly affect the central nervous system, causing its inhibition and sleep state,
- electrophoresis is a physiotherapeutic method, which consists in a complex effect on the body of a direct current of low voltage and strength (galvanization) and drugs.
Massage is an affordable and uncomplicated remedy that can be used to combat headache. It allows you to relax the muscles of the head and neck, relieve tension. As a result of regular activities, the pain decreases, it can even be cured completely.
There are several areas of massage:
- general - normalizes vascular tone, eliminates muscle spasm,
- spot - uses the basics of acupuncture for reflex effects,
- impact on trigger zones,
- effect on the muscular-tonic syndrome in the neck and neck.
Acupuncture affects the nervous system by activating certain points. It is part of a comprehensive treatment for pain that occurs after exertion.
- getting rid of excruciating pains caused by osteochondrosis, neuritis, neurosis, vsd, tension,
- restoration of the structure of nerve tissues,
- improving the nutrition of cells, their recovery by improving blood flow,
- relief of inflammation, improvement of the immune system.
Separately, it should be said from such a method as biological feedback using computer technology.
In the case of HDN, a person is given information about the state of pericranial muscle tension in the form of an audio signal. The patient concentrates on internal sensations and compares them with sound, trying to control and regulate this process.
This helps to some extent change the tone of the muscles, remove tension and thus relieve pain.
The best folk remedies
If the malaise is not particularly intense, try headache treatment with folk remedies at home:
- Thyme herb infusion not only helps improve vascular activity, but also strengthens nerves. Take 5 g of grass, pour 0.5 l of boiling water, leave for 30 minutes. Drink 3 times a day for a week, after which take a two-week break.
- Put a cold compress on your forehead. You can use ice, cabbage leaf, golden mustache, beet pulp.
- Massage the collar zone of the head and neck with a comb or fingers.
Prevention of ailment
- Full sleep at night. You need to sleep at least 8 hours.
- When working at a computer, you need to take a break for 5-10 minutes every hour. Well, if during the break do therapeutic exercises.
- Daily walks in the fresh air. Physical activity not only strengthens health, but also improves the body’s immune response and improves mood.
- To improve the general condition, it is recommended to undergo a course of treatment with medicinal herbs: tincture of peony, motherwort, valerian.
- Minimize alcohol and coffee.
Doctors recommend that patients with tension cephalgia have the following:
- Follow your correct posture, do not sit or lie in an uncomfortable and anatomically incorrect position.
- If you have sedentary work, periodically raise your head up so that the neck is not in constant tension.
- Do not ignore proper nutrition, sleep, relaxation, and physical activity.
- Do not abuse drugs.
- Learn auto-training techniques to calm down quickly.
- See your doctor if your head hurts often. Undergo a psychological examination to determine the emotional factors that contribute to the development of pain.