A wonderful garden can be created both on a large area and on a small plot. One of the main conditions is the rational distribution of plants in the area allotted for this. First you need to draw a plan of the site on paper, on which in several options to present the location of various garden crops.
One of the trends in modern gardening is the tightness of plantings by increasing the number of trees and shrubs per unit area without compromising their fruitfulness. This is achieved by artificial limitation of the crown and special trimming to create its various forms. The punched and semi-punched forms are considered obsolete due to their bulkiness. Increasingly, low-stem with a height of 3-3.5 m and a crown width of 2-2.5 m is used. However, the size can vary depending on the type of fruit tree. For small gardens, it is better to choose the form of a dwarf pyramid, a cordon or palmette. They look beautiful and rational.
Fig. 1. Low stamp form
Fig 3. Palmetta
Regarding the placement of garden crops, it is recommended to allocate 35% of the total garden area under apple trees and pears, 45-50% under fruit shrubs (cherries, cherries, etc.), under grapes - 10-15%, under berries and vegetables - 10-15%.
The overwhelming majority of plants are photophilous; therefore, plantings should be placed taking into account the optimal illumination. On the plan, note how the garden is oriented to the cardinal points, not forgetting that the afternoon sun is a favorable factor for the development of plants. To avoid shading of small plants, tall ones should be planted, as well as placed buildings, from the north, north-east or north-west side. For grapes as a very photophilous plant, you should choose a place near buildings or a high hedge on the south or southwest side of the garden. The same applies to peach, plum, cherry, apple, pear and apricot. Rowan, blackcurrant, raspberry, gooseberry, barberry and dog rose will feel normal with slight shading.
On a small area, the best illumination for plants is achieved by staggered placement, taking into account the cardinal points. It is good when the long side of the garden goes from south to north or from southwest to northeast.
The tree planted from the southern side will bear fruit abundantly, so in this case the best conditions are created for its growth and development. Heat-loving plants are planted in the south and south-west: apricots, cherries, peaches, winter varieties of pears. It creates an excellent microclimate, characterized by good lighting and protection from the wind. Black currants can be planted along the northern border of the plot without any doubt, and red currants and gooseberries on the western or eastern side along the fence of the plot. Partially currant bushes are also planted in the main rows between fruit trees, just remember: in this case, their lifespan is limited to 12-15 years, as the crowns of trees grow and, closing, eventually deprive them of light.
Fig. 4. Step-by-step arrangement of garden trees and bushes with orientation to the cardinal points
Sustainable local varieties of plums and cherries feel good in a separate row, on the path of the prevailing winds, acting as a barrier.
At present, when organizing a garden space, it is desirable to take into account Western European trends in landscape design. To make the garden beautiful and productive, when growing fruit crops, special forms are increasingly being used, obtained by special pruning, with the help of which only fruit branches are formed.
Fig. 5. Placing fruit trees in a spacious garden
Planting trees along the walls of the house and hedges, it is advisable to form a fan-like look, cut them in the shape of a cordon or use trellis to create more light, compactness and decorativeness. Plants forming a hedge can be planted inside the garden space.
When planning a garden, it is important to consider the compatibility of different cultures. Unsuccessful "neighborhood" may adversely affect the future harvest. And the proper placement of plants, on the contrary, will be a favorable factor for good fruiting, since compatible plants pollinate each other and attract bees. Good "allies" are apple and cherry. These do not include raspberries and strawberries, because they are infected from each other by various diseases. It is also not recommended to plant cherries and black currants, pears with viburnum, lilac, jasmine, rose, hawthorn, cherry, plum, cherry plum, juniper and fir.
Fig. 6. Landing along walls and hedges: cordons and trellises
Fig. 7. Intrazone screen
For apple trees the neighborhood with birch, plum, rose, cherry plum, juniper, cherry, viburnum and hawthorn is contraindicated. Mountain ash can not be planted next to the hawthorn, and grapes - with cabbage, hazel and hazel. Strawberries feel great in alliance with garlic, which protects it from disease. When laying or replanning the garden, it is recommended to inspect the site for the presence of so-called anomalous zones. In such places with negative radiation, trees are more often affected by lightning strikes. At the intersections of such geopathic zones fruit trees do not grow well and bear fruit poorly, especially apple trees that turn yellow and lose leaves. And plums and pears fade and dry. Vegetable seeds sprout poorly (cucumbers, beans, peas, radishes) and yield a low yield (for example, in potatoes in these areas it decreases by 2-3 times, in corn - by 3-4 times).
It is also important to comply with the principles of culture. For example, you should avoid planting a new apple tree in place of an old uprooted apple tree. In the new garden, any fruit tree and berry plants are good to plant after maple, mountain ash, wild pear, dogrose, cereals and legumes. And it is better not to use a piece of land on which willow, alder and sedge grew.
For vegetables, a sunny area is chosen, protected by a building or hedge. Light-loving species are located along the edge of the garden on the south side. For flowers, well-planned flowerbeds are preferable, rather than narrow strips of earth.
As for the same fruit crops, when planting, for example, sea buckthorn for better pollination of female plants, male ones should be located from the west of them.
For the normal fruiting of fruit trees and berry shrubs, the depth of groundwater is also important, since when they increase the permissible level, plants are significantly harmed. And if at the same time a lowland is also chosen, the slopes must be sown with grass and perennial bushes or artificial terraces with a drainage ditch should be built. In general, in humid places it is better to plant moisture-loving plants, as well as those for which shading is not terrible, and elevations should be chosen for stone fruit crops. Planting the same plants should be grouped without dispersing in different parts of the garden.
Specialists in landscape design recommend using some fruitful crops as decorative elements of the garden, choosing a lawn for their location. It is possible to divide the beds on it, growing on each of several types of vegetable plants (tomatoes, corn, spicy herbs, green crops and cereals).
Most of the talented gardens, made in landscape style by professionals, at first glance look groomed, as if they were created by nature itself. But this natural beauty is the result of a carefully thought-out planning and efforts of the gardener, who maintains a strict order here. How do we like the "grandmother", landscape and nostalgic gardens? Not only a classic set of flowering plants, although peonies, lilies, lavender, delphiniums and monards look as natural as possible in them. They pacify many by smooth contours, asymmetry, free arrangement of garden furniture.
Usually in such cozy gardens you can find a pond, clearing, grove. The house complements and enriches the landscape. Parts of the garden combine winding paths made of natural materials: wild stone, saw cut tree trunks, lawn. The perspective opens gradually, and there is no point from which you can see the whole garden at once.
Originated in the 18th century in the UK landscape garden style became a logical continuation of the idea of unity with nature, fashionable at that time. British garden architects brought the meadow directly to the house, arranged a forest landscape around them, built arbors, bridges. Plants were planted in tiers: large trees, undergrowth, shrubs, flowers, lawn. In landscape gardens, edible plants (vegetables, fruits, greens) and purely decorative are often adjacent. Today, more often landscape gardens perform in naturalistic style: in them, plants compete for space, stronger ones can suppress and even kill weak ones. To prevent this, vigorously growing herbaceous plants are removed, overgrown bushes are thinned and pruned, seedlings of self-sowing plants are weeded out. Thus, in natural and landscape gardens, equilibrium is maintained and the natural appearance is preserved, but desolation is prevented.
In a small flowerbed, flowers of the same shade look very good, you can use one or more types of plants of different heights, placing a high center, and lower ones closer to the edge.
Such a motley pretty flowerbed can be created using just three plants. 1 - phlox in the background as the highest, 2 - meadow pelargonium, 3 - balsam or pansies
Composition of plants of contrasting colors
Using shades that occupy distant positions in the color spectrum will help to create a spectacular contrast composition. For example, a combination of blue and orange, yellow and purple, burgundy and green.
Two fairly simple flowerbeds with a clear shape without a border. One looks spectacular thanks to the bright colors of large-flowered begonia, while the other contrasts yellow begonia and a frame of red flowers
Arrangement of flowers in close shades
A flowerbed will look very beautiful, where the shades of flowers smoothly replace each other. For example, pink, blue and lilac or bright pink, red and burgundy.
A flowerbed with a predominance of burgundy color, the distance between the zones is filled with colored gravel, which can be successfully used in the design of flower beds. It also makes it easier to care for different areas, as walk on gravel without damage to plants
If you are a lover of bright accents, you can make a discreet, eye-pleasing flowerbed in neutral colors - in white-green colors, green with pink or green with blue. Such a flower bed is visually able to make the space brighter or to dilute bright colors, where necessary.
Choose as the main colors snapdragons of white or light yellow shade or cornflower. In combination with a tall smooth mucella you will get a very interesting discreet flowerbed.
Four complex layouts
The simplest scheme for planting flowers on a flower bed we have already considered. Now consider the schemes for several more complex flower beds.
Round flowerbeds are usually central. If you have a large free area in front of the house, creating a round flowerbed on it will allow the territory to look elegant. Use plants that bloom at the same time, in spring it can be bulbous, then they can be replaced with summer flowers
The “flower” scheme for creating an elegant flower bed. Depending on the size, the central part may be occupied by lawn grass, ground cover plants, a layer of gravel or colored decorative sawdust
All schemes have a common point - the lawn grass occupies the middle space, that is, these are quite large flower beds. If you want to use this pattern to create a small flowerbed, you can replace the lawn with ground cover plants that are ideal for creating patterns. As plants for such flower beds, flowers blooming at about the same time are suitable - daisies, zinnias, alpine forget-me-nots, primrose, viola, left-handed.
The “pattern” scheme will allow you to create an original flowerbed; a wave-shaped pattern can also be an independent flowerbed on a lawn or along paths
Oval “royal” flowerbed. Her scheme is simple, but it will look wonderful like a front flower bed in front of the house or in the center of the garden
When you create a scheme, you need to think about the colors and shades that you want to see in the flower garden. The color combinations on the flower bed can be very diverse. There are no clear recommendations on choosing plants for these flowerbed schemes; you can choose where to plant your favorite flowers, and how best to combine them together.