The snow-white ceiling always looks stylish and harmonious, combined with any design decoration of the room. However, the monotony in the decoration of the upper part of the apartment begins to oppress over time - you want something new, unusual, which neighbors and friends do not have. Modern materials and technologies allow us to solve this problem, gradually pushing whitewashing and painting to the background.
Types of ceilings
Finishing craftsmen offer a variety of ceiling finishes. The following types of ceiling are most in demand:
Tension - The most common technology for designing a ceiling space. Its essence lies in mounting plastic or aluminum profiles of synthetic fabric (polyester) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film. In this case, the tension material is desirable to have without seams. They make it to order after measuring the ceiling. Therefore, independent work on this method of designing the upper part of the room is difficult,
Suspension. The technological process is somewhat similar to the previous ceiling design method. The difference in the rigidity of the frame (metal profiles are used if the ceiling is concrete, wooden beam for floors made of wood or, as in attics, rafter systems) and the type of material for covering the ceiling - plasterboard, wooden, metal, plastic, fiberglass or mineral fiber boards are fixed. Despite the complexity of the technology, such work can be done independently,
Rack and pinion. The surface of the ceiling is mounted from aluminum or steel plates, treated with several layers of varnish. It is installed, as a rule, in unheated rooms (frost-resistant) or in rooms with high humidity (kitchen, bathroom),
Mirrored. This type of ceiling decoration is similar in design to a false ceiling. The only difference is that instead of gypsum plasterboard, mirror plates are used. They visually change the volume of the room, doubling the height of the ceiling. This design of the upper part of the rooms was in fashion 30-40 years ago. It’s very difficult to meet the mirror ceiling,
Bindery. This is a simplified version of a false ceiling. The ceiling surface of this design is also formed from rigid sheets. However, they are not mounted on a suspended structure, but on a wooden or metal frame fixed directly to the floor slabs. Such ceilings do not have the ability to make a hidden wiring of various communications and use built-in LED lights,
Glue - The easiest and most cost-effective option for finishing the ceiling space. There is nothing complicated here - the technological process is even more understandable for the beginner-finisher than whitewashing or painting.
The essence of the method is gluing 50x50 cm square polystyrene panels (another name is styrofoam) to the surface of the ceiling. The tile can be smooth or embossed, painted in the same color or with imitation of wood, granite or plaster, simply painted or with a laminated protective film and etc.
Plastered. According to this technology, the ceiling is primed, putty, and then covered with decorative plaster. Of the advantages of such a ceiling, it should be noted its durability and low cost, two minuses: high complexity and the standard type of painted ceiling with simple painting,
Raster or cassette. It is assembled from small rectangles 60x10, 120x60 cm in size, which professional builders call cartridges (plates). Made of glass or pressed mineral wool. Mounted to the ceiling using special frames. Cassettes have a diverse design, which allows you to implement the most unusual ideas on the arrangement of the interior in any room of the apartment (house).
Why is a drywall ceiling needed?
Many believe that this design is intended only for beauty. In fact, everything is completely wrong and the appearance of the room is the last reason to make a suspended ceiling. Let us consider in more detail why it is necessary to make a ceiling made of drywall.
- Heating savings: you you will pay 10-25% less money for heating, especially for tall houses. From the ceiling of 320 centimeters (private house, stalin) you can make 240-250 cm, therefore, do not heat the excess and warm air will be closer.
- Leveling the ceiling. Some emergency rooms require substantial repairs. With the help of drywall, the problem with the ceiling is solved - you smooth out any irregularities.
- The problem of laying communications and utilities. Sometimes it’s easier to hide them under drywall than to cut the entire ceiling and walls with a wall saw.
- Sound isolation. The best way to “get rid” of neighbors and to retire in your home or apartment. With good insulation, you can even live at the airport.
There are other minor advantages: gypsum plasterboard ceilings allow you to make multi-level structures and dry quickly, which significantly speeds up construction and you can call into a new house much faster.
Gypsum plasterboard ceiling
In the decoration of ceilings, the tendency to reduce the cost of repairs and the complexity of obtaining the maximum possible aesthetic effect is becoming more pronounced. The most beautiful design of the ceiling space is obtained when using suspended structures with sewn drywall. This technological solution for finishing the ceiling allows you to:
- hide the problems of the ceiling (distortion, cracks, chips, visible joint, etc.),
- hide various wiring and cables,
- Do not level, primer or putty the base of the ceiling, which allows you to save on labor costs and materials during these operations.
The plasterboard ceiling is a rigid structure made of a metal frame in the form of a lattice attached to the ceiling with suspensions, and on the walls to a metal profile. Cladding sheets, mainly drywall, are attached to the assembled grating with self-tapping screws.
Layout of the ceiling for drywall - the first stage
We start from the purchase of materials and counting money. To know how many materials will fly to the ceiling from the drywall in the bedroom, you need to mark it and calculate using a calculator. Consider in detail how to mark the ceiling for drywall.
STEP 1: calculate the lowest point of the ceiling. We need to take a tape measure and measure all angles. Take the smallest distance as the basis, retreat from the top 7 centimeters and mark with a marker.
STEP 2: Marking at other angles. We take the laser level (it is possible and the hydraulic level, but it’s more difficult to work) and we “break through” an even line to the other three angles, mark it.
STEP 3: draw a line on the wall. Hammer 1 nail on one mark, another on another, pull the masking cord between them (grease it with a little bit of grease), then we take it to the side and release it. He hits the wall, leaves an even mark - the line is ready. You can also draw just a line using a ruler (level, profile) and a pencil.
STEP 4: mounting rails. From them we will begin the countdown. We attach a metal profile of 28x27 mm and drill holes in the wall through it every 10 centimeters. We take the sealing tape (sold in the kit), glue it on the profile, apply it to the wall and fix it with dowels on the holes made.
STEP 5: mark the wall under the main profiles. Drywall has a width of 120 centimeters and there are 3 profiles per sheet, that is, every 40 centimeters (at the edges of the sheets). Mark on each side of the wall marks every 40 cm, draw a line. We draw perpendicular jumpers every 250 centimeters (sheet length). The first suspension will be placed at a distance of 25 centimeters from the wall, then every 40-50 centimeters.
Important: do not forget to make marks on the wall where the profiles will be under the drywall. This will greatly simplify the search in the process of screwing drywall, because the sheets are large and it will take a long time to hole it until you find a jumper in the middle of the sheet.
Now you can safely read all the lines on the wall and multiply them by the length or width of the room, respectively. “In reserve” is not worth sketching, because it is impossible to spoil the metal profile and even a bent profile can be easily aligned and screwed onto the dowels. Additionally, at this stage, we will need the following items on the drywall ceiling:
- Metal profiles 28x27 mm (guides) and 60x27 (main) according to the calculations.
- "Crabs" for connecting profiles.
- Sealing tape.
- Anchor and dowel (to start 50 pieces can be taken).
- Drywall sheets (10 mm, moisture resistant)
- Putty (3-4 bags per medium-sized room).
- Self-tapping screws for drywall (25 mm for sheets of 10 mm).
- Putty knife and standard tools (ruler, tape measure, clerical knife, hammer).
After buying all this burda (most of the tools probably already exist on the farm), you can get to work.
The advantages and disadvantages of using drywall
GKL suspended ceilings have many advantages:
- long service life - 20-30 years,
- high strength - does not collapse when pressed or scratched,
- work with drywall does not require special tools and skills,
- installation of the frame is possible for any novice builder,
- good heat and noise insulation with the ability to improve these characteristics using insulation,
- does not require special care - sometimes it is enough to walk with a vacuum cleaner or a damp cloth,
- the broadest possibilities in interior design - gypsum board can not only be cut out curly, but also get curved curved shapes after soaking and drying with warm air,
- affordability of materials for all categories of the population,
- environmental friendliness - non-toxic, does not pose any threat to allergy sufferers, and therefore it can be installed in any room of an apartment or house (bedroom, children's room, etc.),
- ease of installation of any kind of backlight.
At the same time, this type of ceiling has its drawbacks:
- need constant repainting every 7-8 years of operation,
- steals the height of the room,
- requires finishing of GKL joints, grooves from hardware, primers and putties for finishing,
- it becomes unusable when a small amount of water seeps from above, even when using moisture-resistant sheets,
- collapses with minor calculation errors,
- there is no possibility of mounting alone - at least 2 people are required.
As can be seen from the above pros and cons, the choice in favor of a suspended ceiling allows you to solve many problems with minor difficulties. However, stretch ceilings are more popular with customers. Why is this happening?
The second stage is the installation of a metal frame for the ceiling
The materials were purchased and now the most boring, but important part of the work is ahead - fixing metal profiles and creating a strong frame for the ceiling. In principle, this is not much more complicated than make a regular interior partition, only in this case the work is carried out with raised hands. Remember that the accuracy of the work depends on whether your ceiling will be bent out of drywall in 2-3 years or not.
STEP 1: fasten the profile suspensions to the ceiling. This should be done with anchors, since the dowel for a vertical surface is much worse.
STEP 2: we increase profiles. Since 1 profile is not enough for the entire room, they must be fastened. To do this, you need to purchase a special connecting fixture and fasten the profiles with it. Joints should be close to the profile suspension.
STEP 3: fastening profiles to suspensions. It is necessary to evenly raise the profile for 2 edges (the auxiliary worker will not interfere here), screw one, rearrange the ladder and stick the other edge. Then, along the mark on the wall (where the profile is located), “grab” the profile over the entire area. We begin fastening from the corners.
Important: never leave the profile without support on 1 or two self-tapping screws, as it weighs a lot and can break out the attachment point with its own weight or simply bend. At least 2 points in different corners of the profile, and preferably 3-4 points.
STEP 4: after you screwed the corners, you need to check the profile level. A tool with a length of 250 centimeters is suitable. If somehow we managed to screw it crookedly - we unscrew and adjust the suspensions in the required place.
STEP 5 : exactly so we attach all the profiles in the middle of the room, moving from the corners to the center, we fasten the jumpers (the joints of 2 sheets of drywall every 250 centimeters). This can be done with a special metal crab. We cut the jumpers from the profile and fasten them together.
STEP 6 : soundproofing and insulation. If the installation of a metal frame is implied with the installation of a heater and an insulator, then it's time to take care of it at this stage. We cut mineral wool in large pieces and fix it over the lintels.
Important: use glasses, a respirator and gloves when laying mineral wool, it can get into the eyes and cause severe skin irritation.
Installation of the frame under drywall is the most complex and lengthy process, all subsequent work is done several times faster and will seem much easier (however, they are easier).
Which is better - drywall or stretch ceiling
A comparative analysis of what is better - a stretch ceiling or drywall for decorating a ceiling space shows:
- The service life of PVC and drywall films is different: film manufacturers in the passport indicate a 10-year life (actually last about 15 years), and GCR can not be changed for 20-30 years - it is enough to repaint regularly
- In terms of heat and sound insulation, both types of ceiling are approximately equal,
Important: if necessary, improve sound insulation or insulate the ceiling, mineral wool can only be used with suspended ceilings.
- In terms of strength, the advantage of a suspended ceiling is that it does not collapse from the slightest touch of a sharp object or concentrated impact of a small force, unlike a PVC film,
- In terms of elasticity, drywall and stretch ceilings have parity - surprisingly, but the film can withstand loads of up to 100 kg / m 2, which is clearly manifested during the flooding of the apartment by neighbors from above. In the experiment, a 6 m 2 PVC ceiling withstood 500 l of water and only after 2 hours small trickles of water began to appear due to the delamination of the film,
- In terms of opportunities to turn design ideas into reality, the stretch ceiling gives a significant head start to the suspended structure, especially in texture and color.
When comparing the installation cost, the stretch ceiling also has a significant advantage. If we compare the prices in St. Petersburg, then for 1 m 2 of installation of the hyproc you will have to pay 2,500-3,000 rubles. for a full cycle of work, and for a stretch ceiling, prices start at 700 rubles.
When performing work on a plasterboard ceiling independently, the costs will decrease and will amount to 700-800 rubles / m 2 (the rate also includes transport costs for the delivery of material in the amount of 200 rubles / m 2, this figure can be changed in any direction, but slightly).
It is necessary to take into account the speed of work. The stretch ceiling is installed in a day, the suspension cannot be mounted during these periods.
Output: in some respects, the stretch ceiling has a significant advantage. But if you consider the issue in the long term, professionals advise installing a suspended ceiling - cheaper and there are no problems with the next repair.
Creating a reliable metal frame for the ceiling of GKL
The manufacture of the ceiling begins with the installation of the supporting base. The guide to creating a metal frame includes 5 main points.
On the prepared line, holes are drilled at previously indicated points. The UD profile is brought to the draft ceiling, the fixation of which is carried out using dowels-nails.
Suspension mounting is in progress. Their main purpose is to fix the main longitudinal metal profiles. For transverse structural elements, they are not needed. Suspensions are fastened with ordinary dowel nails. If voids are found, it is rational to use a ceiling anchor wedge.
The next step is to install a CD type profile. Before suspending them, it is necessary to determine an even horizontal plane passing over the entire area of work. To do this, just pull the nylon thread.
A longitudinal CD profile is initially fixed between opposite UD parts (specifically, it is inserted into grooves specially designed for this purpose). Then it is sequentially mounted in the prepared suspensions. The free ends of the suspensions are bent vertically downwards, completely wrap around the profile and are fixed with small universal screws.
The final stage of creating the frame involves the installation of transverse profiles, which are recommended to be placed at a distance of half a meter from each other.
The finished frame must be gently pulled down on each side. Такая технология позволяет выровнять все подвесы по одной длине и способствует выявлению возможных неровностей в горизонтальной плоскости каркаса.
Крепление гипсокартона к профилям
Когда сталь уже висит на вашем потолке, открывается другое поле для творчества… После монтажа каркаса из металлического профиля можно переходить к самому гипсокартону. After purchasing the material, it must be put in room temperature with a relative humidity of not more than 85%, and let it rest for several days. Remember that you cannot stack sheets vertically and store in this way - they can deform under their own weight, especially if they were slightly wet. Let's move on to the mounting process.
STEP 1: Cut off the edges of each drywall with a clerical knife at an angle of 30-40%, so that later it is easier to seal them with putty. This applies only to cut sheets, since glued already have such a bevel initially.
STEP 2: we lift the sheet (the auxiliary worker will not hurt) and attach it at the corners, then we look for the profile along the line outlined on the wall and fasten the drywall there. If you ignored such marks in the first section, you will have to search for a profile at random. At least 15 centimeters must be retreated from the edges so that the sheet does not break, remember this!
STEP 3: we check all the screws so that the hats are flush with the surface of the material; otherwise, it will not work to putty normally, but “obliquely-crookedly, if only alive” will not suit us.
GK sheets fastening takes no more than an hour in a small room, since the frame is already level and you only have to cut sheets correctly and grab them to the profile with a screwdriver. The frequency of twisting of screws - 20 centimeters.
Where can plasterboard ceilings be installed?
Installation of a false ceiling steals in a room 5-10 cm of its height (an increase in the distance between the floor slabs and the hemmed gypsum board is always determined by the installation of hidden lights). Therefore, in the "Khrushchev", with their small size both in area and in height (2.5-2.6 m), it is not recommended to mount a suspended ceiling made of drywall.
Based on the sanitary and technical requirements for the size of the living room and the design approach to interior design, the one-level installation of drywall on the ceiling at its height of 2.7 m, two-level at an apartment height of 3.0 m and multi-level at very high, 3.3 m is considered optimal. and more, indoors.
Basic principles of working with drywall
Before starting the installation of a suspended ceiling made of drywall, you need to think over and organize the ceiling above the ceiling. All electrical wires and cables are placed in flexible corrugated tubes and fixed with metal brackets to the rough finish. On the GCR, the zones of the location of the lamps are indicated, the corresponding holes are cut along the contour of the outlined figure.
A step-by-step instruction on how to fix drywall is as follows:
- Cut sheets for ease of attachment.
- Seal the metal profile with tape for added cushioning and sound insulation.
- Attach sheets around the edges to the frame. The distance from the edge to the fastener point should be about 2 cm. The step between the screws should be 10-15 cm.
- According to the installation rules, first panels are mounted that are adjacent to the corner sections of the walls. Next, you need to fix the remaining sheets around the perimeter of the room. The central elements of the ceiling structure are attached last.
After the completion of installation work, the finished suspended ceiling should be "defended" within 48 hours. Then you can proceed to the finish. For processing joints, a primer is used, after which the mounting seams must be puttied (for this purpose the gypsum mixture of the Knauf trademark is perfect).
To give additional rigidity and strength to the finish, it is recommended to use a reinforcing mesh.
To do this, it is necessary to apply 60% of the putty, to drown the net with the mixture that has not yet solidified, to smooth out the irregularities with a spatula, to fill the remaining volume of the docking recess with a second layer of putty. The frame on the drywall ceiling is ready.
Jointing, leveling and counting materials
After the sheets are attached, it is necessary to prepare the putty and apply it with a large spatula, make sure that the corners are flat so that there is no excess of finishing material at the junction of walls and drywall. If you apply more, you will have to align the corners for a long time.
After the putty dries up (6-8 hours), you can take a trowel or paper and eliminate all “stains”, level the surface and prepare it for the finish. The ceiling can be painted in the desired color, make a stretch ceiling, decorative plaster and all that is needed.
A room of 20 square meters will have approximately the following amount of materials:
- 19 ceiling profiles in standard size,
- 110 suspensions (fastening of a profile to a ceiling),
- 8-9 sheets of paper 10 mm
- 10 guide profiles (molded against the wall)
- 24 crab
- 0.5 kg of screws for attaching drywall.
- 30 dowels.
Having made simple calculations of the cost of hiring a work crew, we can say that we saved 11,500 rubles by making a ceiling of drywall with our own hands. Does it make sense to spend a couple of days and save this amount - you decide.
Materials and tools
It is considered an axiom that before starting work you should buy the necessary materials and assemble a set of tools. In this case, an exception applies. The exact amount of profile, connecting elements, fasteners and drywall sheets can be found out only by completing some of the preparatory work, which, in turn, requires the appropriate tools.
In order not to break the section of the article into several parts, let's run a little ahead and consider buying materials earlier than the calculations, but relying on them, i.e. about the fifth stage of preparatory work, we will tell before they begin.
In order to have an idea of the cost of repairs, for people installing the suspended ceiling on their own, we will reduce the costs of purchasing materials and a set of tools to tables.
|Name of materials||amount||Price per one.||Cost|
|Drywall 3000x1200x6.5||6 sheets||360||2160|
|UD profile (PN) 28 * 27 * 3000||7 pcs||85||595|
|CD profile (PS) 66 * 27 * 3000||21 pcs.||100||2100|
|Direct suspension||126 pcs.||10||1260|
|Mount "crab"||55 pcs.||12||660|
|Self-tapping screws 3.5x25 mm||1 pack 1000 pcs.||300||300|
|The expansion bolt shield self-tapping screws 6 * 60||266 pcs. (3 pack)||230||690|
|Bedbug Screws||560 pcs. (3 pack)||100||300|
|GKL soil||5 l||100||100|
|Gypsum putty||5 kg||200||200|
|Mesh "Serpyanka"||2 units||50||100|
|Damper tape||20 m||550|
|Water-based paint||1 bucket 9 l||1900||1900|
|Electric wires||19 m||80||1520|
|Light bulbs||11 pcs.||420||460|
Attention: in some retail chains, the “crab” mount is indicated by a suspension, which does not correspond to its function.
Thus, the total cost is 13,895 rubles. The cost of finishing 1 m 2 of the ceiling is 655 rubles. This is only based on materials.
Part of the family budget will be required to purchase or rent the necessary tool. Here, too, the numbers are not small.
|Tool name||Rent price||Purchase price|
|Perforator with nozzles||300||2450|
|Water level||do it yourself|
|Plumb||do it yourself|
|Beat cord (can be done)||no||92|
|Beat cord (can be done)||no||55|
|Faux fur roller||no||29|
|Narrow spatula (up to 10 cm)||no||100|
|Wide spatula (30-35 cm)||no||225|
Useful tips for beginners
- The joints of the connection of 2 metal profiles can not be placed on the same line, they must be done at random, like bricklaying with a "bunch" in construction.
- The use of sealing tape significantly reduces the noise level in the apartment, since the sound is not transmitted through the metal.
- Get moisture-resistant drywall from a well-known manufacturer, its cost is slightly higher, but you will be sure that it will not “lead” and edges will not break.
- Use a screwdriver to screw sheets, working with a screwdriver is simply unrealistic. Immediately buy an additional battery so that you can work continuously.
- Finishing putty hides only minor irregularities, so peel and apply the first layer as evenly as possible - it is actually the last.
If everything is done correctly and according to the instructions, the gypsum plasterboard ceiling will be no worse than that which the working team will make and 100 times better than it will be done by unfortunate migrant workers at "half price"! We also offer to watch a video on how experienced builders are doing plasterboard ceiling:
How to make a drywall ceiling yourself? The technology is not complicated. It consists of preparatory work, frame assembly, installation of gypsum plaster and surface finish. Installation of the false ceiling begins with preparatory work. They include 5 stages:
- room preparation
- designing a project
- calculation of the amount of material
- marking the ceiling and walls,
- purchase of materials.
Attention: on many sites that consider how to fix drywall to the ceiling, gross errors of a different nature are made. Leading portals are no exception. Therefore, before starting work, we recommend that you study several articles on the topic, critically digesting the information posted. Examples of inaccuracies:
- They suggest mounting drywall only on longitudinal CD profiles, which are also fixed parallel to the window (see photo),
- incorrectly indicate the pitch between the ceiling profile CD (50 and 70 cm),
- recommend a 10 cm retreat from the wall for the first line of the frame,
- place suspensions at the intersection of profiles, etc.
I decided to thoroughly deal with the ceiling in the bedroom. The problem is that it is severely deformed. If I somehow figured out the walls, then trouble came. In principle, my ceilings are high - so you can "shorten" the room in height. After evaluating his money, I thought that it wasn’t so difficult to do it myself) I used the usual hydraulic level that I was. Of course, it didn’t take me a couple of days, but 4, but if I had not been distracted by work, I would have done it faster. Thanks, very useful article! Really helped save.
An ideal option to align your curved ceiling. You can, of course, pull, the difference is only in the budget
Before performing any work with the ceiling, you need to get a convenient screwdriver. I wanted to save money, and hopped up the stairs with an electric drill until I got tired of it all. Constantly drag along the wire and extension cord, always go down and unwind / untie the wires. When I bought a cordless screwdriver - everything went like clockwork. I did not think that the difference in the tool so significantly affects the entire workflow. And so, back to the drywall) With drywall, I sculpted the shape of the ceiling, for further installation of the stretch ceiling. I muddied the YIN-YAN form with LED lighting))
The most difficult is to make the installation of a metal frame. It is necessary to do everything clearly, in terms of level. This will be especially difficult for those who have old, uneven ceilings, or, as in old houses, with rounded corners. And the installation of the drywall itself is quite simple. The main thing is to get a couple of helpers and a convenient screwdriver, and then everything will go like clockwork.
Selection of materials and tools
The key to reliability and durability of the design is the right choice of material. To assemble a suspended ceiling with your own hands, you should pre-purchase the main components of the structure, which include:
To equip the design, you need two product options:
- Guide - designed for mounting around the perimeter of the room and acts as the basis for installing the remaining elements of the frame. To create a metal frame using parts of 3-4 m and walls of 0.6 mm. The number of parts is taken based on the values of the perimeter of the room.
- Ceiling - an element in the context resembling the letter "C". On sale there are products from stainless and galvanized steel with a length of 3-4 m.
The shape of the elements does not affect the strength. The main thing is that the products are from one manufacturer. If you plan to make a false ceiling with your own hands, which has an unusual design or is a multi-level system, then the dimensions of the additional design should be added to the total number of guide profiles.
When calculating the required number of C-shaped elements, it should be borne in mind that plasterboard sheets will be fixed on them, fixing every 60 cm. Therefore, for example, for a room of 20 square meters with wall lengths of 5 and 4 meters, 8 four-meter ceiling item.
Tip: To speed up the process of calculating the required amount of materials, you can use special online resources that will automatically calculate online.
When planning to install a suspended ceiling in the bathroom, for cladding, you should choose green GKL, which have moisture repellent properties. The hydrophobic additives that make up the material allow it to maintain aesthetic and operational qualities even in rooms with high humidity: in the bathroom and toilet, in the loggia and kitchen.
When arranging a suspended structure in living rooms, you can choose ordinary gray GCR with a thickness of 8-10 mm. To install a false ceiling with your own hands, there is no need to purchase sheets of large thickness, since this entails an increase in the weight of the structure, thereby increasing the complexity of the work.
High-quality installation of a false ceiling with your own hands cannot be performed without the use of fixing devices. With their help it is easy to create configurations of any complexity.
To secure profiles, you will need:
- Direct suspension - the number of parts is calculated taking into account the fact that they will be placed every 60 cm. Therefore, for a room of 20 square meters, 40-50 parts are enough.
- Crab - designed to connect elements at right angles. The number of parts should be equal to the total number of proposed frame joints.
- Extension cords - to create all kinds of ceiling combinations.
To fix the suspensions, you also need to prepare an 8x10 dowel. Connect galvanized profiles and attach the frame to the concrete base will help galvanized screws 4,2x51. To fix the drywall sheets, 25 mm long self-tapping screws will be required.
To install the structure you will need tools:
- Building level,
- 2.5 meter rule
- Hammer drill,
- Screwdriver or electric drill,
- A simple pencil
- Scissors for metal,
- Construction knife
- A grinder equipped with a metal circle.
The construction level is needed to perform accurate marking of the horizontal line for the installation of the guide profile. A two-meter level will be required when marking drywall sheets.
To perform finishing work after installation with your own hands, you should prepare materials in advance, which include:
- Serpyanka - reinforcing tape for seams,
- Self-adhesive sealing tape
- Acrylic Primer
- Putty for joints,
- Paint brush or roller
- Medium spatula
- Fine sandpaper
- Sound and heat insulation (if necessary).
Self-adhesive porous sealing tape helps ensure that the frame adheres tightly to the concrete surface.
Mounting the frame of the suspended structure
A guide profile is installed around the perimeter of the room, placing it so that the bottom end coincides with the horizontal line drawn on the wall.
Having measured the required length of the profile, cut it with scissors for metal. Then, tightly pressed to the line on the wall, fixed on the dowels, drilling directly through the profile. To create a solid structure, the interval between the holes should be at least 30-40 cm, and at the edges and corners - 15 cm.
In the places of placement of the middle of drywall sheets, it is worthwhile to provide additional fastening. A sealing tape is glued to each profile, fixing the structure to the wall with dowels.
Installation of the ceiling profile is carried out in several stages:
- Drawing a marking. Lines are applied to the ceiling surface parallel to the window opening, maintaining a distance of 40 cm. With this step, it will be convenient to fix the drywall sheets both at the edges and in the middle.
- Installation of suspensions. Fasteners for the profile of the first row from the wall are placed at a distance of 25 cm, and at subsequent ones - 50 cm. This step will be convenient for laying thermal insulation material.
GKL frame sheathing
The principle of attaching drywall sheets to a metal frame is quite simple. They are raised to the level of the frame and fixed with screws every 10-15 cm.
When installing drywall sheets, it is important to follow a number of recommendations:
Sheets must be mounted parallel to the longitudinal profiles, excluding coincidence of joints. In places of joining of segments and whole sheets to prevent possible cracks during subsequent puttying, it is necessary to make indentations with a knife.
All joints of sheets should be located strictly on the profiles. Between adjacent sheets always leave a gap of 1 mm.
The screws begin to screw from the corner of the sheet, moving toward the center. They are screwed in at a right angle, “recessing” the caps into a 1 mm sheet.
To obtain rectangular holes it is convenient to use a hacksaw, and for round holes for fixtures - an electric drill equipped with a special “crown”. If it is necessary to make a round hole with a diameter of more than 80 mm, it is enough to drill several holes along the circumference of the circle, and squeeze the inside of the circle formed out.
Other secrets of craftsmanship when working with drywall video:
Обшив каркас листами, смонтированному потолку дают «отстояться» в течение одного-двух дней. После этого переходят к отделке поверхности. Сначала покрывают ее грунтовкой. Затем тщательно заделывают все стыки шпаклевкой, а швы укрепляют армирующей лентой. Помимо стыков зашпаклевывают «утопленные» шляпки шурупов.
Зашпаклеванный потолок оставляют на сутки. После полного подсыхания отделочного материала мелкозернистой наждачкой «зашкуривают» стыки. The cleaned surface is covered with a finishing putty. After drying, the joints are again “sanded”, carefully inspected by the light of the lamp, and if unevenness and scratches are detected, the finish is again covered. Final grinding is performed when the material is completely dry, i.e. after 7-8 hours. Ideas for finishing options can be taken from a photo on the net.
Having mastered the installation technology of a single-level suspended ceiling, it will be possible to move on to more complex structures, using interesting combined options instead of standard solutions.
In a new building, the entire preparation of the room for the ceiling device is reduced to its cleaning from debris. In a habitable apartment you must:
- Remove all furniture from the room to provide unhindered access to any point on the ceiling,
- If it is impossible to complete the first step, close the armchairs, sofa or cabinet with plastic wrap from dust generated during drilling of the ceiling and walls under the dowels. In this case, you need to be prepared for the repeated movement of furniture from place to place, to gain access to the entire ceiling space, and to clean armchairs and a sofa, because dust tends to get under the film, finding the smallest holes,
- To clear a ceiling of the retarded paint, traces of mold (fungus), soot.
To perform design work, you will need a tape measure, a simple pencil (ballpoint pen) and a double notebook sheet, in a box. All work is done in several steps.
1. Tape measure measures the length of each wall, excluding protrusions and niches. If they are in the room, the perimeter of the walls is additionally measured. The first size is needed to calculate the number of lines of the ceiling profile, the second, the perimeter, to determine the length of the guide profile.
2. The obtained sizes are applied on a notebook sheet at a certain scale. The result should be a drawing of the ceiling.
3. A frame passage scheme is being developed, as well as mounting points for suspensions. The following points are important here:
- Longitudinal profiles can be attached in increments of 40 or 60 cm, due to the weight of drywall. The larger it is, the more often profiles should be installed. Builders adhere to the following recommendation: for gypsum coatings up to 9.5 mm thick, inclusive pitch of 60 cm, for thicker, of course, and heavier - 40 cm. Why are these values exactly? These numbers are multiples of the standard width of the drywall sheet of 120 cm.
- Cross profiles are fastened only in increments of 50 cm (not 60 and 70 cm, as indicated in many materials), which is a multiple of the length of the sheet of gyroc
- With a distance of 40 cm between the longitudinal profiles, only they are mounted on the ceiling suspensions, and “crabs” are enough for the transverse profile. At a step of 60 cm, transverse profiles should also be attached to the ceiling.
4. Marking of the passage of the wiring and the location of the fixtures.
The result should be a drawing similar to the drawing in the photo below.
An approximate installation diagram of a suspended ceiling frame.
Material quantity calculation
To illustrate the methodology for calculating materials, we take the real dimensions of the room, and not the simplified ones: 5.6 m in length and 3.8 m in width, while one of the walls is 5.9 m long due to a protrusion of 15 cm.
Important: in all recommendations, including Knauf instructions, the length of the walls is taken for calculations. But if one or several walls have niches or ledges, it is only necessary to work with the dimensions of the room.
1. Determine the footage of the guide strips (PN), size 28 × 27 mm - are attached to the walls under the ceiling, serve as a support for the frame:
- We calculate the perimeter of the walls: 5.6 + 5.9 + 3.8 x 2 = 19.1 m.
- We find the number of PS profiles: 19.1 m / 3 m = 6.36 pcs., Where 19.1 m is the perimeter of the walls, 3 m is the length of the profile, 6.36 pcs. - the number of strips required for ceiling installation. Since this amount is not for sale, you have to purchase 7 pieces.
2. We calculate the number of ceiling profiles (PS) with a cross section of 60 × 27 mm - a grid is assembled from it for the installation of gypsum plasterboard. To do this, we determine the number of longitudinal and transverse rows. Since it is planned to install GCR with a thickness of 6.5 mm, the pitch for longitudinal profiles will be 60 cm, transverse - 50 cm.
Attention, it is very important: the construction industry does not stand still and constantly eliminates problem areas. False ceilings were constantly faced with the fact that vibration violated the integrity of the drywall joints: they were covered with a network of cracks. Therefore, experienced GKL builders glued wallpaper or applied decorative plaster. Today, the seams are closed with fiberglass mesh, which eliminates the problem.
The calculation is carried out according to the formula: K = P / L - 1where:
- K is the number of profile lines,
- P is the length of the room,
- L is the step size (0.6 m).
Substitute the numerical values in the formula and get the amount:
- Longitudinal rows: 3.6 / 0.6 - 1 = 5,
- Transverse: 5.8 / 0.5 - 1 = 10.6. As a result of rounding up we get 11 rows.
The total length of the ceiling profile will be 68.6 m (5.8 x 5 + 3.6 x 11). On sale you can find a ceiling profile with a length of 2.5 m to 4 m. In our case, the most optimal option is 3 m. Then you have to buy 23 slats (68.6 / 3).
3. The length of the room is greater than the length of the profile, so they have to be increased. In our example, the connection of the longitudinal parts of the frame will occur in the crab, since the step of the transverse profiles is a multiple of the length of the strap.
4. The number of "crabs" is equal to the number of intersections of longitudinal and transverse profiles - 55 (5 x 11).
5. The number of direct suspensions can be calculated by a simple formula:
S = (D + 1) x N + (N + 1) x Dwhere:
- S is the number of direct suspensions,
- D is the number of rows of longitudinal profiles,
- N is the number of rows of transverse profiles.
Substituting specific numbers into the formula, we get that for work it is necessary to buy 126 suspensions <(5 + 1) x 11 + (11 + 1) x 5>.
6. The expansion bolt shield self-tapping screws 6 × 60 mm (8 × 80 mm) for installation of directing profiles and fastening of suspensions. They are screwed into the wall every 30 cm, 2 pieces are required for attaching 1 suspension. A total of 266 pcs.
7. Self-tapping screw “bug” LN 11 (3.9 x 11), for connecting profiles to each other on the wall - 2 pcs., With a crab - 4 pcs., With a suspension - 2 pcs. It will take 3 packs of 200 pieces.
8. Self-tapping screws for attaching drywall 3.5x25 mm. They GKL are attached to the crate. It will take 1 pack of 1,000.
9. Drywall must be purchased 3 m long so as not to make inserts (with a GKL length of 2.5 m, a piece of 0.8 cm in length will have to be cut in addition to 2 whole sheets). A total of 6 sheets will be required <(3.6 x 5.8) / (1.2 x 3)>, where the first two digits are the size of the room, the second are the length and width of the sheet.
Marking the ceiling and walls
In a new building, using the hydro or laser level, the horizon line is beaten off. Then, after numerous measurements, there is the lowest point of the ceiling. From it, a minimum of 5 cm is measured down (when installing built-in fixtures - 10 cm) and a ceiling line is formed. For those who first encounter such concepts and methods of finding the ceiling line, we recommend that you look at the article "How to check the floor level in the apartment yourself?". Here everything is one to one, only upside down.
In an apartment with a laid floor, it is not necessary to beat off the horizon line - the floor will successfully fulfill its role. After finding the key point (the lowest part of the ceiling space minus 5 cm), using the hydraulic level (laser level), a line is drawn on the wall along which the ceiling will be installed.
On it, every 60 cm, starting from the wall, marks are placed on the passage of longitudinal ceiling profiles. A similar operation is carried out on the opposite wall. Using a plumb line, a metal ruler (rule) and a pencil, vertical lines are drawn from the marks to the ceiling, after which the mark along which the profile passes is struck along the ceiling with a building cord (twine spread with colored chalk). If everything is done correctly, a series of lines parallel to each other and adjacent walls is obtained.
Attention: longitudinal profiles must be perpendicular to the window, regardless of the size of the room. Therefore, the initial marking is placed on the wall with a window, then on the opposite side.
A similar operation is carried out with another pair of walls, but with a step of 50 cm. Places of fastening of plumb lines are marked at a distance of 30 cm from the wall and 60 cm between themselves for longitudinal profiles and 25 cm from the wall with a step of 50 cm. : suspensions are mounted in the middle of each side of the rectangle formed by profiles (see diagram).
Work on the installation of a drywall ceiling begins with the installation of a supporting frame. We will analyze step by step how to assemble it.
Step 1. Holes are drilled around the perimeter of the walls for fastening the guide profile. To do this, the guide is firmly pressed against the adjacent wall, while its lower edge should go strictly along the drawn line of the ceiling. Marks for mounting dowels are drilled through the metal through the wall.
The first hole should be located 10 cm from the edge of the wall, the next - every 30 cm. There are recommendations to place dowels through 50-70 cm, but this reduces the rigidity of the structure.
Step 2 Holes are drilled according to marks, dowels are driven into them. A damper (sealing) tape is glued to the back of the profile to prevent sound waves from entering the ceiling from the wall, after which the guide is firmly attached to the wall.
To avoid possible deflection of the ceiling at the junction of the two rails, experienced builders advise reinforcing the joints. To do this, inside the profiles, at the junction, a plate of tin, plastic or plywood is wound and attached at least 2 screws. Thus, the UD (PN) profile is installed around the entire perimeter of the room.
Important: The vast majority of authors recommend installing guides only for longitudinal CD profiles, which is fundamentally wrong. With this arrangement of the frame, large parts of the GKL corners adjacent to the wall remain completely unfastened. The result is manifested within a couple of months, when the sealed joints are torn and one of the sheets sags by 1-2 millimeters.
Step 3 Direct suspensions are installed across the ceiling, across the line drawn. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that the line is strictly in the middle of the fastener. You can fix them with a dowel-self-tapping screw (2 pcs. For each suspension) or anchor bolts, which is more reliable. After fixing the suspensions, their whiskers, with their hands or pliers, are bent down at a right angle.
Step 4 With the help of fishing line or kapron thread, a ceiling plane is formed. Such an operation is needed to control the ceiling level in the center of the room - under its weight, the frame strives to bend down. The thread (fishing line) is pulled along each line of the longitudinal profile. So that the thread does not sag, it is additionally fixed on the mustache of the suspensions (2-3 are enough), bent up at the desired height.
Step 5 Mounted longitudinal ceiling profiles. First, the PS-profile is inserted into the groove of the PN-profile at the place of the mark and is attached to the guide bar with “bugs” screws. Then, sequentially, it is fixed in suspensions. The horizontal is controlled by a tense fishing line and level. The protruding mustache of the suspensions are bent to the side.
Step 6 At the places where the frame intersects the longitudinal profile with the “bugs”, the “crab” fastening is screwed on - one screw on each side.
Step 7 Transverse profiles are fastened, ends in a “crab”, in the middle by a suspension.
Heat and sound insulation
If there are noisy neighbors or the top floor above, the ceiling can be insulated with mineral wool, which also absorbs sounds well. Inside the frame, it is attached with the so-called "fungus" - a special fastener system.
To mount the ceiling from drywall yourself, step-by-step instructions are given below:
- Drywall is brought into the room where it will be installed, and left for 2-3 days. This will allow the GCR to adapt to new conditions and take a geometric shape for a specific temperature and humidity. It is stored only in a horizontal position,
- GKL is cut into size: the sheets are shortened, a notch under the ledge is cut,
Important: in our example, for the odd rows of the hyproc, only the last sheet is cut. In even rows, the first sheet is always shortened by 50 cm, and then the last sheet is sized. This is done so that the seams do not match.
- With a construction knife, at an angle of 45 degrees, the chamfer is cut along the edge of the cut,
- The first sheet is applied to the frame so that a technological gap of 1-2 mm remains near the wall - it is necessary for the exchange of air (ventilation) between the room and the ceiling space. The first self-tapping screw is screwed at a distance of 10 cm from the wall, the subsequent ones every 20 cm. GCRs are attached to each row of profiles, as well as along the edges. It is better to heat the heads of hardware into drywall manually, using a Phillips screwdriver, which will prevent them from twisting. Along the edges of the sheet, at the seams, the screws are screwed “apart”, not against each other.
After the installation of the false ceiling, the most crucial moment comes: the finish of the drywall. The appearance of the ceiling space depends on the quality of its implementation. Here it is necessary to highlight the following stages of work:
- sealing joint joints and traces from the heads of hardware,
- puttying the entire surface of the ceiling,
- cutting holes for fixtures,
- painting the ceiling with water-based paint,
- installation of fixtures.
Many recommendations for finishing gypsum plaster indicate a prerequisite - applying a primer before puttying. However, for modern putty mixtures (Vetonit LR +, KR, JS, Founded Econsilk, Plitonit KP, Kreps KR), a primer is not needed. GKL putty instructions can be found in the article “How to glue wallpaper on drywall?”, Paragraph 2.5. "Drywall putty."
Cutting holes for fixtures
Using the diagram drawn at the beginning of the installation of the ceiling, the places of installation of the lamps are marked on the drywall sheets. A removable crown for a perforator or electric drill drills holes. The crown can be bought at any hardware store. Its price is 140-350 rubles. In the crown there are sets of cutting blades for cutting holes with a diameter of 26, 32, 38, 45, 50, 63 mm.
Painting the ceiling with an aqueous emulsion
Painting should be done before installing the fixtures, which will greatly simplify the whole process (the ceiling can also be finished with wallpaper or decorative plaster). How to choose the right paint, in which order to apply each layer and other nuances of painting can be found in the work "How to paint the ceiling with water-based paint without stains?"
How to make a highlight
Without design solutions for light, the device of a false ceiling practically loses its meaning - the same effect also comes from a simply painted ceiling (except for the ability to hide some defects of the ceiling - in this case, a simple ceiling repair is several times cheaper).
In practice, various options are applied under