When lumberjacks, hunters, and others who want to get something more from the forest than fresh air and a basket of mushrooms appear in the forest, the forester checks their documents: the right to cut down, hunt, grazing, etc.
He also makes sure that in hot weather no one makes a fire. If someone violates the rules, the forester has the right to detain him, draw up an act of forest violation. In some cases, it is limited to suggestion: for many people, it is enough to simply explain why it is not necessary to pick up the Red Book flowers and why the glass bottle thrown among the moss is dangerous. (For information, the bottle not only litter the forest, but also can cause a fire, because it acts like a lens.)
Each forester is assigned a plot of forest - a forest bypass - for which he is responsible. The forester not only fights against offenders, but also organizes human activities in the forest: he directs the process of planting the forest, mass collection of seeds and fruits, participates in the allocation of plots for felling, the cutting area for pastures and hayfields, etc.
But not only people are harmed by the forest. When a forest ranger notices insect pests or tree-afflicting diseases on his plot, he informs the forest ranger - the foreman (this is the forester’s immediate supervisor) or the forest ranger. And then, under their guidance, he participates in the treatment of trees, sanitary felling, etc.
But the biggest danger to the forest is a fire. Fire spares neither trees, nor birds, nor animals. The forester is involved in extinguishing forest fires. And to avoid them, he devotes a lot of time to the prevention of natural disaster. He makes sure that people do not make fires, cuts down and removes dead wood from the forest.
In case a fire does happen, the land between the forest sectors is plowed with a tractor and a plow. This is a mandatory preventive measure, because excavated land can stop ground fire. The land is plowed regularly so that grass does not have time to grow on it - an obedient conductor of flame.
To slow down the riding fire, the forester monitors the crowns of the trees at the border of the sectors: trees of different sections should not touch each other with branches.
Foresters are forest intercessors. And the endless taiga, and small copses, and city forest parks, and dense forests, where hundreds of kilometers to the nearest city - all of them need the help of these people.
The profession of a forester implies a love of nature and a sense of responsibility for it, integrity and courage, without which the fight against poachers is impossible. The forester should be easy-going, hardy person, ready for physical exertion and manual labor. He often has to travel long distances, work with a saw, shovel, etc. tools. The forester needs a good memory, including visual, the ability to plan his time, to distribute attention.
Diseases of the musculoskeletal system, allergies to plants, a significant decrease in vision and hearing are contraindications.
The forest ranger profession existed in Europe to protect private and state forests from fire and illegal logging. In Russia, Peter I in 1722 established the Forest Guard, in which servicemen were recruited from the surrounding settlements. Later, in 1839, a paramilitary service was created - the Forestry Corps, which over time was transformed into a civilian department.
Under Soviet rule, in 1923, the Forest Code was approved, which provided for the creation of the state forest fund. For its service, special units (forestry) were created, in which there were such positions as a forester, a lineman and a breeder. After some time, foresters were introduced instead of the lineman.
Description and characteristics of the profession
The modern profession "forester" covers a wider field of activity than was the position of forester. This employee not only protects forests from deforestation and fires, he also conducts outreach with the population, represents the state in judicial and administrative cases regarding damage to forests, and controls felling and planting. The forester should not be confused with the arborist who is exclusively engaged in reproduction of the forest: sowing seeds, caring for seedlings, replanting them in a permanent place.
Directions, specialties and educational institutions according to the profile of training
Only people with secondary specialized and higher education work as a forester. In colleges, you can choose the specialty "forestry and forestry."
In higher educational institutions of the country they teach the following areas:
- "Forestry and forestry",
- "Rational multi-use of forests",
- "Forest management, hunting service and tourism",
- "Reforestation, forestry and forest management", etc.
Among secondary specialized educational institutions, it may be noted:
- Ufa Forestry College,
- Tyumen Forestry College,
- College of Baikal State University (Irkutsk),
- College of Chelyabinsk State University,
- Faculty of secondary vocational education of the Ural State Forestry University (Yekaterinburg).
Among the universities where forestry is studied, we pay attention to such institutions:
- Dagestan State Agrarian University named after M.M. Dzhambulatova (city of Makhachkala),
- Siberian State University of Science and Technology M.F. Reshetilova
- Saratov State Agrarian University named after N.I. Vavilova,
- Voronezh State Forestry University named after G.F. Morozova, where a new direction "Forest Protection and Hunting" was introduced,
- Mytishchi branch of Moscow State Technical University N.E.Bauman has a specialty "Forest management and forest management".
In these educational institutions, specialists receive a number of qualifications: forester, arborist, forest conservation inspector, hunting expert.
In the job descriptions of foresters in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, such duties are prescribed:
- management of forestry operations in terms of production and economic activities,
- control over the state of the forest and the rational use of forest resources,
- introduction of advanced technologies into production,
- organization of legal felling, reforestation, fire prevention activities,
- forest protection from unauthorized logging, fires, diseases and pests,
- allotment of cutting areas and forest leave for felling,
- organization of wood processing, waste management,
- seed management,
- drawing up acts on violations of the law regarding forest use,
- imposition of fines for violations of fire regulations,
- assistance to expeditions carrying out various types of work on the site (forest inventory, forest reclamation, design and survey) and quality control of their execution,
- forest fire extinguishing management,
- fight against poachers,
- Representation in court on cases of forest fires and violations of forest use.
Foresters have the right:
- patrol forests and prevent disturbances,
- check citizens documents for the right to use and restore forests,
- to search and detain the vehicles of violators,
- when prohibitions or restrictive measures are introduced, to prevent the entry of citizens and vehicles into certain areas,
- to detain violators and deliver them to law enforcement agencies, seize vehicles and guns from them, with the help of which violations were committed.
Employees who carry out forest supervision on behalf of the state are issued a special form and official certificate. They may carry civilian or service weapons, as well as special equipment. The inspector, foresters and assistant are subordinate to the forester.
Who is suitable for
Forest ranger is a profession for people who love nature and care about it. Random people will never work in the forest, given the complexity of work and not the highest salary.
The forester should have such qualities as:
- stamina and hard work,
- integrity and honesty,
- readiness for physical activity and work with the help of manual equipment,
- the ability to navigate the terrain,
- good visual memory.
Also, a specialist forester can not do without the specific knowledge that is acquired during training and practice:
- features of the entrusted site (plant, landscape, topographic),
- a number of approved rules (leave of wood, hunting, grazing, haying), which may vary in different regions,
- GOSTs for the procurement of medicinal plants, seed, food,
- fire safety and labor protection techniques,
- various types of liability for breaking the law,
- the procedure for processing various documents (economic and administrative properties),
- signs of parasites and plant diseases in the forest,
- properties of wood of different trees.
Also, the forester needs to be able to draw up maps, read them, and cooperate with local residents on issues of rational forest management.
The forester spends a large amount of time on his feet in the area assigned to him; often he has to urgently leave for a place in case of any emergency situations. This work is not suitable for people who have diseases of the musculoskeletal system, poor eyesight or hearing, as well as allergic reactions to plant pollen.
A simple forester (state inspector for forest protection) earns a little, on average in the country from 15 to 18 thousand rubles a month. The profession of a forester is estimated slightly higher - 23 thousand rubles. There is a certain gradation depending on the region, as well as on the length of service, however, in general, the work of forest workers is not appreciated, despite the greater scope of responsibilities.
The greatest need for personnel is naturally observed in regions, a significant part of which is covered by forests: in the Trans-Baikal, Khabarovsk and Krasnoyarsk Territories, in the Komi Republic.
How to build a career
Forestry belongs to state structures, therefore, if you have the appropriate higher education and abilities, you can make a career in profile. The inspector may become a forester, senior forester, head of the forestry. In addition, work experience can be useful in a logging or fishing company.
Foresters work in forestry enterprises, forestries, forestries, forestry enterprises, hunting farms (along with rangers), nature reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, in urban greening companies, in timber harvesting and processing enterprises, in expeditions for forest inventory, environmental services, forestry departments .
History of the profession
Since ancient times, in many religions of the world, the forest has been a sacred ecological system. As a rule, people who were close by and used its resources and gifts dealt with forestry protection.
Forests helped to hide from enemies, fed entire villages. Wood extracted in the forest was used during construction and as fuel.
The first memories of people guarding the forest date back to the 9th century. Since that time, the ecological system has been protected from unauthorized logging and hunting. The law enforcers were hired by feudal lords. But for the simple reason that the feudal lands included not only forests, but fields, ponds and pastures, workers were called not just foresters, but representatives of the forest guard. The official institution of the post dates back to the 18th century.
On a vast area belonging to the Russian Federation, forests began to grow and revive actively in the middle of the 20th century. And the first forestries were created at the beginning of the century.
Profession Forester - Description
A forester is a forestry worker (for short - a leshoz), a staff member of the forestry. State property is transferred under his protection. Each person acting as a forester has a certain part of the forest fund, which must be constantly circumvented and monitored. When an employee notices any violations on his territory, he must notify the forestry.
For each detour, an individual passport is provided with an indication of the buildings, structures, forest stands, land and other property that are recorded in the document.
Requirements for a candidate
In order to master the profession, it is necessary to undergo special training on the basis of a forest school, college, technical school with a degree in Forestry and Forestry, or attend special courses.
In farms in which there are hunting grounds, the ranger is additionally assigned the duties of a huntsman.
And what duties does the forester profession imply? What important qualities should a candidate for this position have? Is a preferential profession a forester?
Today, the salary of the forester is 6-7 thousand rubles per month. However, government officials plan to index wages and increase the rate by 6%. Also, for full-time employees, the authorities are going to introduce benefits, thanks to which employees can pay less for utilities and travel in public transport.
The profession of a forester suggests that a candidate for a position should have certain qualities:
- excellent physical fitness
- good health,
- love of the environment
- courage, courage and the desire to protect nature,
- the ability to navigate the terrain,
- endurance and habit of manual labor,
- attentiveness and good memory.
Forestry profession: responsibilities
The duties of the forester include the following activities during the bypass of the fixed area:
- detection and extinguishing, as well as the prevention of forest fires,
- forest protection from illegal logging,
- animal protection,
- protection of green spaces from diseases and pests,
- carrying out chores.
A forestry worker not only deals with tree planting, he also monitors order in the territory entrusted to him. Defines plots for cutting dead wood. Thinning landing. The forester monitors the health of the forest: destroys harmful insects, conducts treatment and destroys unhealthy plants.
The employee must possess knowledge and skills in the field of botany, zoology, nature management. Must be able to read and map, as well as own forest management practices. If strangers appear on the territory who want to hunt or chop wood, the forester is required to check the documents that confirm the right to these actions.